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simple speed sensorless control of induction motor drive

simple speed sensorless control of induction motor drive

SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM NIKOLA TESLA

October 18 – 20, 2006, Belgrade, SASA, Serbia

Simple Speed Sensorless Control of

Induction Motor Drive

Dejan D. Relji 1, Darko B. Ostoji 2, Veran V. Vasi 3

Abstract – Development trends in industrial electrical drives indicate that the next generation of electrical drives will include some type of sensorless control. Controlled induction motor drives without speed sensors have the attractions of low cost and high reliability due to the absence of the mechanical component and its sensor cable. Speed estimation schemes that allow high dynamic performances are based on vector control of induction machines. However, U/f electrical drives with slip compensation produce satisfactory precision in speed sensorless control down to 100 rpm and are adequate for low dynamics applications. This article presents simple, low cost U/f control of induction motor drive without mechanical speed sensor. Both simulation and experimental results are presented.

Keywords – Induction machine, sensorless speed control, U/f control.

U/f electrical drives with slip compensation produce satisfactory precision in speed sensorless control down to 100 rpm and are adequate for low dynamics applications [4]. U/f sensorless speed estimation schemes can be used in low cost drive applications, not requiring high dynamic performances, such as pumps, ventilators and the like.

This article presents simple, low cost U/f scalar control method of induction motor drive without mechanical speed sensor.

II. SCALAR (U/F) CONTROL

For pump and ventilator like applications the speed control range is only from 3 to 1 up to 10 to 1 [4]. Speed sensors are avoided in such electric drives. Usually scalar U/f open loop control has been used for such applications. The voltage U and its frequency f are related by:

I. INTRODUCTION

The need for tacholess speed control of induction machines has become widely recognized because of the cost and fragility of a mechanical speed sensor, and because of the difficulty of installing the sensor in many applications. For these reasons, most industry experts agree that the next generation of commercial drives will include some sort of sensorless torque control [1].

Many attempts have been made in the past to extract the speed signal of an induction machine [2]. The very first attempts have been based on techniques that are only valid in the steady state. Various concepts for controlled high performance induction motor drives without speed sensor have been developed in the past few years [3]. Speed estimation schemes that allow high dynamic performances are based on vector control of induction machines. -----------

Dejan D. Relji is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovi a 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, E-mail: 2

Darko B. Ostoji is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovi a 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, E-mail: 3

Veran V. Vasi is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovi a 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, E-mail:

1

U=U0+k(f) f (1)

U0 is called voltage boost and is required to run the motor properly at low speeds. The frequency is ramped as desired and an open loop PWM procedure, based on (1), is used to control the PWM inverter (Fig. 1). Ramping the frequency should be performed slowly enough to maintain stability because open loop scalar (U/f ) control drives are prone to instability and they are vulnerable to fast ramp acceleration and large torque perturbations [4].

simple speed sensorless control of induction motor drive

Fig. 1. Open loop scalar control

However, the scheme shown in Fig. 1 will result in speed errors caused by a load, since it has been assumed above that the stator frequency is equal to the reference speed, which is only correct if the slip is zero (there is no load). It follows that to ensure good steady state speed regulations, slip compensation must be employed [2]. The principle of slip frequency compensation method consists of increasing the reference frequency by the estimated slip frequency to make rotor speed independent of load.

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